u kamu nu Akate

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nilacul[mikawaway-kalumyiti | mikawaway tu kalumyiti sakatizeng bangu]

阿卡德語,u kamu nu Akate(Akate a kamu:𒀝𒅗𒁺𒌑,akkadû ;sulit:𒌵𒆠,URIKI  ;acasa Akate a kamu:𒅴𒀝𒅗𒁲𒌈,lišānum akkadītum )), u zuma a ngangan sa, u Yajia a kamu acasa Yakati a kamu, u kamu i sumamaday i Meisoputamiya kakitizaan saungay, u Yafi kamu salaylay San a binacadan a kamu. u matinengay saayaway a kamu nu San a binacadan, Akate a kamu namakay sumamaday Sumei a kamu, Sye a sulit. kya kamu a ngangan namakay tusa talawadaw lalangawan.

kakiliman[mikawaway-kalumyiti | mikawaway tu kalumyiti sakatizeng bangu]

BC 3000 a mihcaan, Sumei binacadan a tademaw atu Akate binacadan a tademaw patahkal tu masasiketay a lalangawan, tusa_kamu tacuwacuwa sa mueneng. micaliw tu sulit, kamu_sakilul, kakuniza(型態) atu kamu_ngiha macamel, Sumei a kamu salawilaw(最有影響) tu Akate a kamu. sisa, u kusuday(學者) pakuhica(認為) Sumei atu Akete tina tatusa a binacadan, u nisakaput(聯盟) kuheni.

patalahekal ku Akate a kamu i BC 2800 a mihcaan, sungay tu cidek ngangan_sulit(專有名詞). namakay BC 3000 a mihcaan zikuzay a demiad, malingatu tahekal tatenga'ay nu Akate a kamu a sulit atu cudad. kayadah ku cudad atu nasulitan matepa, izaw ku kungku、hulic、kagak(科學)、tigami atu laylay a cudad. katukuh BC 2000 a mihcaan, tusa masazumaay(變體) a kamu(u Yasu a kamu atu Papilun a kamu), nasaungay i Yasu atu Papilun.

Akate a kamu na u saungayay a kamu i sumamaday a capi_wali kakitizaan, matenes katukuh kayadah a lasubu a mihcaan, alawhani, BC 800 a mihcaan, malawpes tu tina kamu, nikatapalan(邊緣化) ni Alami a kamu. katukuh Sila a namihcaan(時代、時期), u mapalaway dada' musaungay tian kamu. sazikuzay a cudad tahekal i BC 100 a mihcaan.

kakitizaan a kamu:[mikawaway-kalumyiti | mikawaway tu kalumyiti sakatizeng bangu]

i sasa'ay a sapat_sulit(表格), u malucekay a kakitizaan a kamu nu Akate:

已知的阿卡德語方言u matinengay a kakitizaan a kamu nu Akate
方言kakitizaan a kamu 分布地點 nikalaliwasakan nu kakitizaan
亞述方言Yasu kakitizaan a kamu 兩河流域北部 tusa_talawadaw maalul a subal saamisan
巴比倫方言Papilun kakitizaan a kamu 兩河流域中部及南部 tusa_talawadaw maalul a subal satebanan atu satimulan
馬里方言Mali kakitizaan a kamu 幼發拉底河中游地區 (馬里城附近地區) Yufalati talawadaw satebanan maalul a subal kakitizaan
那巴達方言Napata kakitizaan a kamu 敘利亞北部地區Shuiliya saamisan a kakitizaan (特爾·貝達爾遺址附近地區,該遺址的古名爲那巴達,在早王朝時代爲那伽爾控制下的城市)

u miginkiway pakuhica(認為), i ayaway a nasakamuwan atu natingengan, saungayay a Akate a kamu, caykaw nu zikuzay a Yasu kakitizaan a kamu atu Papilun kakitizaan a kamu, u paliyuh atu malawpesay a pacacayay(獨自) a kakitizaan a kamu. u zumaay a Akate a kamu sanay ku Aypola a kamu, uyzasa mizateng kita u pacacayay a wali_Sanmite a kamu ku Akate a kamu.

edapngiha[mikawaway-kalumyiti | mikawaway tu kalumyiti sakatizeng bangu]

原始閃米特語 阿卡德語 阿拉伯語 希伯來語
*b b ب b ב b
*d d د d ד d
*g g ج ǧ ג g
*p p ف f פ p
*t t ت t ת t
*k k ك k כ k
(Ø)/ ʾ ء ʾ א ʾ
*ṭ ط ט
*ḳ q ق q ק q
*ḏ z ذ ז z
*z ز z
*ṯ š ث שׁ š
س s
ش š שׂ ś
*s s س s ס s
*ṱ ظ צ
*ṣ ص
*ṣ́ ض
غ ġ ע ʿ [ʕ]
*ʿ (e) ع ʿ [ʕ]
*ḫ خ ḫ [x] ח
*ḥ (e) ح ḥ [ħ]
*h (Ø) ه h ה h
*m m م m מ m
*n n ن n נ n
*r r ر r ר r
*l l ل l ל l
*w w و w ו

י

w

y

*y y ي y [j] י y
原始閃米特語 阿卡德語 阿拉伯語 希伯來語

nangiha[mikawaway-kalumyiti | mikawaway tu kalumyiti sakatizeng bangu]

元音音位nangihangiha_kakitizaan
前ayaw 央teban 後zikuz
閉edeb i u
中teban e
開buhad a
ngngan_sulit atu pakatineng_sulit a zikuz名詞與形容詞詞尾
名詞 (陽性) 名詞 (陰性) 形容詞 (陽性) 形容詞 (陰性)
主格單數 -um -at-um -um -at-um
屬格單數 -im -at-im -im -at-im
賓格單數 -am -at-am -am -at-am
主格雙數 -ān -at-ān
間接格雙數 -īn -at-īn
主格複數 -āt-um -ūt-um -āt-um
間接格複數 -āt-im -ūt-im -āt-im
AO 5477 (photograph and transcription)

namakayniay a nasulitan nasakamuan atu natinengan(參考來源)[mikawaway-kalumyiti | mikawaway tu kalumyiti sakatizeng bangu]

nasulitan ni Tuku Tiway Sayuen i 2021 a mihcaa.

  • Aro, Jussi (1957). Studien zur mittelbabylonischen Grammatik. Studia Orientalia 22. Helsinki: Societas Orientalis Fennica.
  • Buccellati, Giorgio (1996). A Structural Grammar of Babylonian. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Buccellati, Giorgio (1997). "Akkadian," The Semitic Languages. Ed. Robert Hetzron. New York: Routledge. Pages 69-99.
  • Bussmann, Hadumod (1996). Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-20319-8
  • Caplice, Richard (1980). Introduction to Akkadian. Rome: Biblical Institute Press.(1983: ISBN 88-7653-440-7; 1988, 2002: ISBN 88-7653-566-7)(The 1980 edition is partly available online.)
  • Gelb, I.J.(1961). Old Akkadian Writing and Grammar. Second edition. Materials for the Assyrian Dictionary 2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Huehnergard, John (2005). A Grammar of Akkadian (Second Edition). Eisenbrauns. ISBN 1-57506-922-9
  • Marcus, David (1978). A Manual of Akkadian. University Press of America. ISBN 0-8191-0608-9
  • Mercer, Samuel A B (1961). Introductory Assyrian Grammar. New York: F Ungar. ISBN 0-486-42815-X
  • Soden, Wolfram von(1952). Grundriss der akkadischen Grammatik. Analecta Orientalia 33. Roma: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum.(3rd ed.: ISBN 88-7653-258-7)

malaalitin tu i hekalay atu zumaay a natinengan(外部連結)[mikawaway-kalumyiti | mikawaway tu kalumyiti sakatizeng bangu]